Small-diameter arterial conduits with native physiological and biological equivalence continues to be a constant global demand posing critical challenges in fabrication. Advent of various strategies towards mimicking the structural hierarchy of a native blood vessel, often involve complex instrumentation and template-assistance with post-processing complications eventually compromising structural fidelity. In the present research, we report a template-free, facile strategy- ‘3D wet writing’ by peripheral-core differential ionic gelation to fabricate perfusable customizable constructs of any dimension, thickness and length in <5 mins. Dual-crosslinking using di-diol complexation of borax with Alginate-PVA was performed to enhance the stability of fabricated bi-layered tubular constructs (BLT). These fabricated BLTs demonstrated non-liner mechanical characteristics of native blood vessels in withstanding physiological (120/80 mmHg) hemodynamic loading conditions with cyclic strain (5.82 ± 0.88 %). The BLTs also ensured adequate longitudinal (0.176 ± 0.03 MPa) & circumferential (0.29 ± 0.012 MPa) tensile strength and burst pressure strength of 353.875± 22.69 mmHg. Hemocompatible characteristics of BLT were clearly evident with lower hemolytic index (0.21±0.03 %) and maintenance of erythrocyte structural integrity under dynamic conditions. Further, non-thrombogenic and non-inflammatory characteristics of BLTs were confirmed by in-activated platelets and monocytes under dynamic conditions. The developed wet-writing technique exhibited facile integration of layer-specific cells concurrently with the BLT fabrication. The spatial cell-specific expressions of smooth muscle (α-SMA) and endothelial (CD-31) cells in BLT were comparable to native hierarchical cellular organization with the multi-layered medial and mono-layered intimal layers. Further, ex-vivo dynamic studies on anastomotic interface between BLT and rat abdominal aorta clearly evidenced the functional efficacy of fabricated BLTs as physiologically relevant small-diameter vascular construct.
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