PUBLISHED IN: ACS Publications Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2022
Hemorrhaging is the main cause of death among combat and civilian injuries and has significant clinical and economic consequences. Despite their vital roles in bleeding management, an optimal topical hemostatic agent (HA) has yet to be developed for a particular scenario. This is partly due to a lack of an overarching quantitative testing technology to characterize the various classes of HAs in vitro. Herein, the feasibility of a novel, contactless, and nondestructive technique to quantitatively measure the shear storage modulus (G′) and clotting properties of whole blood in contact with different dosages of eight topical HAs, including particulates and gauze-like and sponge-like systems, was assessed. The real-time G′–time profiles of these blood/HA systems revealed their distinct biomechanical behavior to induce and impact coagulation. These were analyzed to characterize the clot initiation time, clotting rate, clotting time, and apparent stiffness of the formed clots (both immediately and temporally), which were correlated with their reported hemostatic mechanisms of action. Moreover, the HAs that worked independently from the natural blood clotting cascade were identified and quantified through this technology. In sum, this study indicated that the nondestructive nature of the technology may offer a promising tool for accurate, quantitative in vitro measurements of the clotting properties of various classes of HAs, which may be used to better predict their in vivo outcomes.
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